Field Marshals of the Austro-Hungarian Army 1914-1918

The following article provides shortened biographical details for all those officers who ultimately were promoted to the rank of Field Marshal. Although traditionally the Kaiser held the rank of Field Marshal no serving officer had been promoted to that rank since the death of Archduke Albrecht in 1895. The rank was first conferred on Archduke Friedrich on 8th December 1914. Promotions are detailed from full colonel up. Some of the German titles are left un-translated in the text and a translation can be found in the table at the bottom of the page. Similarly a key to the abbreviations of awards is also appended:

 Erzherzog Friedrich k.u.k. Hoheit

* 4.6.1856 in Groß-Seelowitz/Mähren + 30.12.1936 in Ungarisch-Altenburg/Hungary

Promotions: O:23.10.1879, GM: 1.11.1882, FmLt: 1.11.1886, FZM: 1.5.1894, GdI: 14.6.1910, FM: 8.12.1914;

Commands: 27.Inf.Brig IX.1882-VIII.1886, 14.Inf.Div VIII.1886-IX1889, 5.Korps IX.1889-IV.1905, Armee-Inspector IV.1905-VI.1907, k.k. Landwehr-Oberkommandant VI.1907-VII.1914, Armee-Oberkommandant VII.1914-XII.1916, Deputy Armee-Oberkommandant I.1917-XI.1917, at Disposal XI.1917-XI.1918, Per 1 December 1918 retired.

Decorations: GVO-R, MMTO-GK, StO-GK, MVK 1.(KDS) with Diamonds, GMVM(KDS), VSt-RK(KD), MVK 3. with Diamonds, SMVM, BMVM, D2, MJM98, MJK08; Oberstinhaber IR Nr.52, Honorary Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Lemberg, of the Vienna Institute of Technical Science and the Vienna Institute for Soil Cultivation;


Erzherzog Eugen k.u.k. Hoheit

* 11.5.1863 in Groß-Seelowitz/Moravia + 30.12.1954 in Meran

Promotions: O: 1.5.1890, GM: 28.10.1893, FmLt: 1.5.1896, GdK: 27.4.1901, GO: 22.5.1915, FM: 23.11.1916;

Commands: 9.InfBrig X.1893-II.1896, 25.InfDiv II.1896-IV.1900, 14.Korps IV.1900-X.1908, Armee-Inspektor X.1908-VI.1912, retired from active service VI.1912-XII.1914, 5.Armee XII.1914-V.1915, CinC of Balkan Forces XII.1914-V.1915, CinC Southwest Front V.1915-III.1916, Heeresgruppe Erzherzog Eugen III.1916-III.1917, CinC Southwest Front III.1917-I.1918, from January 1918 relieved from active duty, Per 1 December 1918 retired.

Decorations: GVO-R, MMTO-GK, StO-GK, MVK 1.(KDS) in Brillanten, GMVM(KDS), VSt-RK(KD), MVK 3with Diamonds, SMVM(KDS), BMVM(KDS), SMVM, BMVM, D3, MJM98, MJK08, last secular Hoch- und Deutschmeister, Oberstinhaber IR Nr.4 and Nr.41, Honorary Doctor of Law and Political Science at the University of Zagreb, of Medicine and Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck and the Vienna Institute for Soil Cultivation, Curator of the Imperial. Academy of Science in Wien, Patron of the  k.u.k. Central Commission for the preservation of monuments, of the Vienna society of the friends of music, the international foundation „Mozarteum“ in Salzburg and the Innsbruck music association.;


Conrad von Hötzendorf Franz Graf

* 11.11.1852 in Wien-Penzing + 25.8.1925 in Bad Mergenburg/Württemberg

Promotions: O: 1.5.1893, GM: 1.5.1899, FmLt: 1.11.1903, FZM: 1.11.1908, GdI: 15.11.1908, GO: 23.6.1915, FM: 23.11.1916;

Commands: InfRgt1 IV.1895-IV.1899, 55.InfBrig IV.1899-IX.1903, 8.InfDiv IX.1903-XI.1906, Armee-Inspektor XII.1911-XII.1912, Chief of the General Staff XII.1912-III.1917, Heeresgruppe Conrad III.1917-VII.1918, Colonel commanding all Lifeguards VII-XI.1918;

Decorations: MMTO-GK, MVK 1.(KDS), LO-GK(KDS), EKO-R1(KDS), GMVM(KDS) with bar, VSt-RK(KD), MVK 3.(KDS), SMVM(KDS), BMVM(KDS), KM, D2, MJM98, MJK08; Geheimer Rat, Life time member of the Austrian House of Lords, Oberstinhaber IR Nr.39, Chancellor of the Military Order of Maria Theresa, Honorary Doctor of Law at the University of Czernowitz and of Medicine at the University of Innsbruck, of Philosophy at the German University in Prague, of Technical Science and the Vienna Institute of Technical Science and at the German Instiute of Technical Science in Brünn;


Kövess von Kövessháza Hermann Freiherr

* 30.3.1854 in Temesvar + 22.9.1924 in Wien

Promotions: O: 1.11.1896, GM: 1.11.1902, FmLt: 1.5.1907, GdI: 1.11.1911, GO: 26.2.1916, FM: 5.8.1917;

Commands: InfRgt23 III.1898-X.1902, 15.InfBrig X.1902-XI.1906, 8.InfDiv XI.1906-IV.1910, 12.Korps VI.1911-IX.1915, Armeegruppe Kövess VIII.1914, Armeegruppe Kövess II.-IX.1915, 3.Armee IX.1915-X.1916, 7.Armee X.1916-I.1918, Heeresfront Kövess I.-IV.1918, Heeresgruppe Kövess X.-XI.1918 XI.-XII.1918 Armee-Oberkommandant;

Decorations: MMTO-K, StO-GK, MVK 1.(KDS), LO-GK(KDS), EKO-R1(KDS), GMVM(KDS), LO-R, VSt-RK(KD), SMVM(KDS), BMVM(KDS), KM, D2, MJM98, MJK08; Geheimer Rat, Life Member of the House of Magnates of the Hungarian Reichstag, Oberstinhaber IR Nr.95;


Krobatin Alexander Freiherr von

* 12.10.1849 in Olmütz + 27.12.1933 in Wien

Promotions: O: 1.5.1895, GM: 1.11.1900, FmLt: 1.5.1905, FZM: 1.11.1910, GO: 26.2.1916, FM: 5.11.1917;

Commands: Kriegsminister XII.1912-IV.1917, 10.Armee IV.1917-X.1918, Heeresgruppe Tirol X.-XI.1918;

Decorations: StO-GK, MVK 1.(KDS), LO-GK(KD), GMVM(KD), EKO-R2, VSt-RK(KD), MVK 3., D2, MJM98, MJK08; Geheimer Rat, Minister a.D., Life time member of the Austrian House of Lords, Oberstinhaber FAR Nr.108 (formerly FeldHaubitzRegt. 14), Honorary Doctor of Technical Science at the Vienna Technical Institute, Honorary President of the Kaiser Karl War Welfare Fund, Honorary member of the Vienna Riding Association „Wiener Reitervereinigung Viribus Unitis“;


Rohr von Denta Franz Freiherr

* 30.10.1854 in Arad/Banat + 9.12.1927 in Wien-Rodaun

Promotions: O: 11.11.1896, GM: 1.5.1903, FmLt: 1.5.1907, (tit)GdK: 6.9.1911, GdK: 1.5.1913, GO: 1.5.1916, FM: 9.2.1918;

Commands: Chief of Staff  2.Korps IX.1897-IV.1901, 78.HonvInfBrig IV.-VI.1901, 3.HonvKavBrig VI.1901-X.1903, 73.HonvInfBrig X.1903-VI.1904, III.Royal Hungarian Landwehr District VI.1904-VIII.1905, Royal Hungarian Landwehr Cavalry Inspector VIII.1905-VII.1909, Generalinspektor of Military Training Establishments IX.1909-V.1913, Royal Hungarian.Landwehr-Oberkommandant V.1913-VIII.1914, Gruppenkommando Rohr VIII.1914-V.1915, Armeegruppe Rohr V.1915-I.1916, 10.Armee I.-VI.1916, 11.Armee VI.1916-III.1917, 1.Armee III.1917-IV.1918, Kapitän der k.u. Trabanten-Leibgarde IX.-XI.1918;

Decorations: MVK 1.(KDS), LO-GK(KDS), EKO-R1(KDS), GMVM(KDS), VSt-RK(KD), SMVM, BMVM, D2, MJM98, MJK08; Geheimer Rat, Oberstinhaber IR Nr.48;


Böhm-Ermolli Eduard Freiherr von

* 12.2.1856 Ancona/Kirchenstaat + 9.12.1941 in Troppau

Promotions: O: 1.5.1897, GM: 1.5.1903, FmLt: 1.11.1907, GdK: 1.5.1912, GO: 1.5.1916, FM: 31.1.1918

Commands: UlanRgt3 V.1897-IV.1901, 16.KavBrig IV.1901-XI.1905, 7.KavDiv XI.1905-IV.1909, 12.InfDiv IV.1909-XI.1911, 1.Korps XI.1911-VII.1914, 2.Armee VII.1914-V.1918, Heeresgruppe Böhm-Ermolli IX.1915-VI.1916 and X.1916-I.1918, at Disposal VI.1918-XI.1918;

Decorations: MMTO-K, StO-GK, MVK 1.(KDS), LO-GK(KDS), EKO-R1, GMVM(KDS), LO-R, VSt-RK(KD), MVK 3., SMVM(KDS), BMVM(KDS), D2, MJM98, MJK08, MK13; Geheimer Rat, Life time member of the Austrian House of Lords, Oberstinhaber UR Nr.13, 1940 awarded the uniform and title of a General Field Marshal of the German Wehrmacht;


Boroevic von Bojna Svetozar

* 13.12.1856 in Umetic/Croatia + 23.5.1920 in Klagenfurt

Promotions: O: 1.11.1897, GM: 1.5.1904, FmLt: 1.5.1908, GdI: 1.5.1913, GO: 1.5.1916, FM: 1.2.1918;

Commands: Chief of Staff 8.Korps VI.1898-II.1904, 14.InfBrig II.1904-VII.1907, VI.Landwehr District Agram VII.1907-IV.1912, 6.Korps IV.1912-IX.1914, 3.Armee IX.1914-V.1915, 5.Armee V.1915-V.1917, Isonzo-Armee V.-VIII.1917, Heeresgruppe Boroevic VIII.1917-XI.1918;

Decorations: MMTO-K, MVK 1.(KDS), LO-GK(KDS), EKO-R1, GMVM(KDS) with Bar, LO-R, EKO-R3, VSt-RK(KD), MVK 3.(KDS), SMVM(KDS), BMVM(KDS), KM, D2, MJM98, MJK08; Geheimer Rat, Oberstinhaber IR Nr.51, Honorary Doctor of Law and Political Science at the University of Zagreb;


Erzherzog Josef k.u.k. Hoheit

* 9.8.1872 in Alcsuth/Hungary + 6.7.1962 in Rein near Straubing

Promotions: O: 1.5.1905, GM: 1.11.1908, FmLt: 1.5.1911, GdK: 1.11.1914, GO: 1.11.1916, FM: 24.10.1918;

Commands: 79.HonvInfBrig IV.1907-IV.1911, 31.InfDiv IV.1911-XI.1914, 7.Korps XI.1914-XI.1916, Heeresfront Erzherzog Josef XII.1916-I.1918, 6.Armee I.-VII.1918, Heeresgruppe Erzherzog Josef VII.-X.1918, Regent in Hungary XI.1918-VIII.1919, from 1927 until 1944 member of the Hungarian Upper House, from 1936 until 1944 President of the Hungarian Academy of Science;

Decorations: GVO-R, MMTO-K, StO-GK, MVK 1.(KDS), LO-GK(KDS), EKO-R1(KDS), GTM für Offiziere, GMVM(KDS), EZ1-RK(KD), MVK 3., BMVM(KDS), BMVM, KTK, D3, MJM98, MJK08, MK13; Oberstinhaber DR Nr.15, Honorary Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Budapest and of the Budapest Institute of Technical Science;

Table of Abbreviations and Translations:

  Geheimer Rat Privy Councillor
  Oberstinhaber Regimental Colonel
  Kämmerer Treasurer - a Court appointment
  Oberkommandant Commander in Chief
StO-GK St.Stephan-Orden - Großkreuz St Stephen's Order Grand Cross
MVK. 1.K. Militär Verdienstkreuz 1. Klasse Military Merit Cross 1st Class
LO-GK Leopold-Orden - Großkreuz Leopold Order Grand Cross
VSt-RK Verdienststern Rotes Kreuz Red Cross Merit Star
GMVM Goldene Militär Verdienstmedaille Golden Military Merit Medal
SMVM Silberne Militär Verdienstmedaille Silver Military Merit Medal
BMVM Bronzene Militär Verdienstmedaille Bronze Military Merit Medal
LF-Abz Luftfahrerabzeichen Aircrew Badge
EKO-R1 Orden der Eisernen Krone 1.Klasse Order of the Iron Crown 1st Class
FJO-GK Franz Joseph Orden - Großkreuz Franz Joseph Order Grand Cross
GVO-R Ritterordern vom Goldenen Vlies Golden Fleece Order
MMTO-GK Militär Maria Theresien-Orden Military Order of Maria-Theresa
GTM Goldene Tapferkeitsmedaille Golden Bravery Medal
(KDS) Kriegsdekoration mit Schwerter War Decoration with Swords

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