Chronology of the Mexican Adventure 1861-1867


25th January On this date the so-called Law against State-Crimes was issued. This republican law threatens all Mexicans who fight under foreign flags or participate in any way against the form of a republican government with death - this was the basis of the later execution of Kaiser Maximilian and some of his followers.
June Benito Juarez re-elected as President of Mexico and orders the expulsion of senior clerical appointees including the Archbishop of Mexico, Pelagio Antonio Labastida y Dávalos
17th July Mexican Congress suspends any payment of debt to foreign powers
31st October France, Great Britain and Spain sign Treaty of London, uniting their efforts to obtain payments from Mexico
8th December Spanish fleet and troops from Cuba arrive at Veracruz
11th December President Juarez granted extraordinary powers by the Mexican Congress


1st January USA advices Mexico that it cannot help because of it's own Civil War
6th-8th January British and French fleets arrive at Veracruz
27th February Campeche surrenders to French fleet
5th March General Lorencez arrives with French army at Mexico
9th April Britain and Spain decide to withdraw
24th April British and Spanish troops leave Mexico
5th May Mexican army led by General Zaragoza defeat the French army under General Lorencez at Puebla
14th June Pursuing Mexican army contained by French at Orizaba in the province of Veracruz
21st September More French troops arrive in Mexico
1st October General Lorencez replaced by General Forey
16th October Further French reinforcements arrive under General Bazaine
23rd October Tampico occupied by the French army
12th December Jalapa taken without combat by General Bazaine


15th January Acapulco bombarded by French warships
16th March French army under General Forey marches into the interior and lays siege to Puebla
30th April 3rd Company of the 1st Regiment of the French Foreign Legion fights to the last man at Camerone which is the beginning of the later formidable reputation of the legion.
7th May Mexican relief army under General Comofort defeated by French under General Bazaine at San Lorenzo south of Puebla
17th May Puebla surrenders to the French army
31st May President Juarez and the Republican government leave Mexico City and retreat to the north taking the state-treasure with them
7th June First French troops under General Bazaine enter Mexico City, followed by the main army under General Forey on the 10th of June
16th June Superior Junta, appointed by General Forey, appointed the Mexican conservative General Almonte as provisional President of Mexico
21st June The 35 members of the Superior Junta meet for the first time
10th July Superior Junta proclaims a Catholic Empire and offers the crown and title of Emperor to Erzherzog Maximilian, the younger brother of the Austro-Hungarian Emperor
1st October General Bazaine replaces General Forey as supreme commander
3rd October The Comisiòn Mexicana, sent by the Superior Junta, meet Erzherzog Maximilian at his castle Miramar near Trieste, he accepts the offered crown only after a public poll of the Mexican people confirm him as Emperor - which was later evaded under French control


7th January French troops under General Bazaine occupy Guadalajara
6th February French troops under General Douay occupy Zacatecas
4th April US Congress and Senate pass a unanimous resolution opposing the establishment of a monarchy in Mexico
10th April Erzherzog Maximilian accepts the crown of Mexico and signs the so-called Miramar Convention
29th May Emperor Maximilian and Empress Charlotte arrive at Veracruz on board the SMS Novarra
3rd June Acapulco falls to the French
12th June Emperor and Empress arrive at Mexico City
3rd July French occupy Durango
1st September General Bazaine promoted to Marshal
November Republicans suffer several defeats in states of Sinola and Jalisco


9th February French army under Marshal Bazaine captures city of Oaxaca which is defended by the republican General Porfirio Diaz
29th March French fleet lands troops who capture Guyamas
11th April Republicans defeat Belgian and Imperial troops at Tacámbaro in the province of Michoachán
April-May States of Sinola and Chihuahua invested by Republicans who also occupy most towns along the Rio Grande
11st July Belgians defeat Republicans during the second battle of Tacámbaro
3rd October Kaiser Maximilian issues his so-called "Black Decree", threatening summary execution of Mexicans taken under arms as a reaction of the republican law issued 1861 which  threatened the same
21st October Several high ranking Republican military and civil officials are executed by Imperial troops in accordance with the Black Decree
8th November Term of office of President Juarez is extended due to the intervention; Republican siege of Matamoros raised


12th February USA demand the withdrawal of French troops from Mexico
25th March Republicans occupy the province of Chihuahua
6th May USA officially protests to Austria concerning the corps of Austrian volunteers in Mexico
31st May Emperor Napoleon III of France announces the start of his army's withdrawal from Mexico
8th July Republican army under General Mariano Escobedo defeats Imperial troops at Santa Gertrudis (state of Nuevo Leon) and take Guadalajara
July Republicans troops capture Matamoros, Tampico and Acapulco
26th July French evacuate Monterey
5th August French evacuate Saltillo
11st August Empress Charlotte pleads, in vain, to Emperor Napoleon III. for more French troops
September French evacuate Guyamas and the whole state of Sonora
18th September French members of Emperor Maximilian's cabinet resign
3rd and 7th October Republican army under General Diaz defeat Imperial troops at Miahuatlàn in the province of Oaxaca
November Republicans occupy Oaxaca and parts of Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi and Guanajuato
6th December The Austrian and Belgian volunteer corps to be disbanded and should enter the National Imperial Mexican Army. Of  the 4,648 who were still alive (and not captured by the Republicans) about 3,500 dio not and try to leave Mexico as soon as possible.


January Republicans occupy the rest of Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi and Guanajuato
5th February French evacuate Mexico City
13th February Emperor Maximilian leads part of his army to Querétaro
20th February Republicans occupy Morelia
9th March Republican armies under General Escobedo surround Querétaro and start siege operations
12th March Last French troops leave Veracruz, selling all their equipment - as done before - to the republican troops
2nd April Capture of Puebla by Republicans under General Diaz
12th April Republicans lay siege to Mexico City
27th April Sortie by Imperial troops from Querétaro fails
15th May Fall of Querétaro to Republican armies under General Escobedo and capture of Emperor Maximilian
19th June Kaiser Maximilian and his Generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Meija executed by firing squad at Querétaro
20th June Mexico City surrenders to Republican troops
15th July President Benito Juarez makes triumphant entry into Mexico City
17th July The other captured imperial Generals, Minister Aguirre and Oberst Prinz Salm-Salm are also sentenced to death
16th August All imprisoned imperial higher ranks receive pardon, some are liberated a little later, some spend several years in captivity
3rd October Admiral Tegetthoff receives the dead body of Erzherzog Maximilan at Veracruz to bring him back to Austria on board the SMS Novarra, arriving Trieste on the 16th of January 1868

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